Horses: New Observations in Anatomy and Development
Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil Munich Germany
(In Development)


Bernor, L. R., P. J. Andrews, N. Solounias and J. A. H. Van Couvering. 1979. The evolution of "Pontian" mammal faunas: some zoogeographic, paleoecologic and chronostratigraphic considerations. Annales Geolologiques Pays Helleniques, VII International Congress on Mediterranean Neogene. Athens, 1: 81-89.
Black, C. C., L. Krishtalka and N. Solounias. 1980. Mammalian fossils of Samos and Pikermi. Part 1. The Turolian rodents and insectivores of Samos. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 49(2): 359-378.
Solounias, N. 1981. Mammalian fossils of Samos and Pikermi. Part 2. Resurrection of a classic Turolian fauna. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 50(8): 231-270.
Solounias, N. 1981. The Turolian fauna from the island of Samos, Greece. Contributions to Vertebrate Evolution, 6:1-232, 42 tables, 67 figures, 1 map.
Solounias, N. and G. de Beaumont. 1982. Brief remarks of certain large-sized Turolian hyaenids from Pikermi and Samos, Greece. Archives de Sciences de Geneve, 34(3): 293-304.
Solounias, N. 1982. Evolutionary patterns of the Bovidae (Mammalia). Proceedings of the III North American Paleontological Convention, 2: 495-499.
Weidmann, M., N. Solounias, R. E. Drake and G. H. Curtis. 1984. Neogene stratigraphy of the Mytilini Basin, Samos Island, Greece. Geobios, 17(4): 477-490, 1 table, 8 figs.
Ioakim, Ch. and N. Solounias. 1985. A radiometrically dated pollen flora from the Upper Miocene of Samos Island, Greece. Revue de Micropaleontologie 28(3): 197-204.
Solounias, N. 1988. Evidence from horn morphology on the phylogenetic relationships of the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Journal of Mammalogy, 69(1): 140-143.
Solounias, N. and B. Dawson-Saunders. 1988. Dietary adaptations and paleoecology of the late Miocene ruminants from Pikermi and Samos in Greece. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 65: 149-172.
Solounias, N., M. Teaford and A. Walker. 1988. Interpreting the diet of extinct ruminants: the case of a non-browsing giraffid. Paleobiology, 14(3): 287-300.
Solounias, N. 1988. The prevalence of ossicones in Giraffidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia). Journal of Mammalogy, 69(4): 845-848.
Werdelin, L. and N. Solounias. 1990. Studies of fossil hyaenids: the genus Adcrocuta Kretzoi and the interrelationships of some hyaenid genera. Journal of the Lynnean Society 98:363-386.
Solounias, N. 1990. New hypothesis uniting Boselaphus and Tetracerus with the Miocene Boselaphini (Bovidae, Mammalia) based on horn morphology. Annales Musei Goulandris, Kifisia, Greece 8: 425-439.
Solounias, N. and N. Tang. 1990. The two types of cranial appendages in Giraffa camelopardalis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla). Journal of Zoology 222: 293-302.
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1991. Evidence for the presence of ossicones in Giraffokeryx punjabiensis. Journal of Mammalogy 72:215-217.
Werdelin, L. and N. Solounias. 1991. The Hyaenidae: taxonomy, systematics and evolution. Fossils and Strata. Number 30: 1-104, 7 tables, 67 figures.
Hunt, R. M. Jr. and N. Solounias. 1991. Evolution of aeluroid Carnivora: Hyaenid affinities of the Miocene carnivoran Tungurictis spocki from Inner Mongolia. American Museum of Natural History Novitates. 1991 number 3030.
Hayek, L-A., R. L. Bernor, N. Solounias and P. Steigerwald. 1992. Preliminary studies of hipparionine horse diet as measured by tooth microwear. Pp. 187-200. In: A. Forsten et al., (eds.). Bjorn Kurten - A Memorial Volume. Annales Zoologici Fennici 28, Helsinki, Finland.
Solounias, N. 1991. The history of the paleontological excavations at Samos, Greece. Apoplous, Greece 6-7:237-251.
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1992. Tooth microwear analysis of Eotragus sansaniensis (Mammalia: Ruminantia), one of the oldest known bovids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12(1): 113-121.
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1992. Cranial restoration of Eotragus sansaniensis (Mammalia: Ruminantia), one of the oldest bovids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12 (2):250-255.
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1992. Dietary adaptation of two goat ancestors and evolutionary considerations. Geobios 6(25): 797-809.
Solounias, N. and L-A. C. Hayek. 1993. New methods of tooth microwear analysis and application to dietary determination of two extinct antelopes. Journal of Zoology, London 229: 421-445.
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1993. Dietary adaptation of some extinct ruminants determined by premaxillary shape. Journal of Mammalogy 74: 1059-1074.
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1993. Tooth microwear and premaxillary shape of an archaic antelope. Lethaia 26:261-268.
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1994. Dietary differences between two archaic ruminant species from Sansan, France. Historical Biology 7:203-220.
Werdelin, L., A. Turner and N. Solounias. 1994. Studies of fossil hyaenids: the genera Hyaenictis Gaudry and Chasmaporthetes Hay, with consideration of the Hyaenidae of Langabaanweg, South Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 111:197-217.
Quade, J., N. Solounias and T. E. Cerling. 1994. Stable isotopic evidence from paleosol carbonates and fossil teeth in Greece for forest or woodlands over the past 11 Ma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 108:41-53.
Solounias, N., M. Fortelius and P. Freeman. 1994. Molar wear rates in ruminants: a new approach. Annales Zoologici Fennici 31:219-227.
Solounias, N. 1994. The fossils from Samos. Apoplous 13:75-81.
Solounias, N. 1994. Cranial restoration and dietary determination of two extinct antelopes from the Miocene of Greece. Annales Musei Goulandris, Greece 9:511-520.
Barry, C. J., M. Morgan, L. J. Flynn, D. Pilbeam, L. L. Jacobs, E. H. Lindsay, S. M. Raza and N. Solounias. 1995. Patterns of faunal turnover and diversity in the Neogene Siwaliks of Northern Pakistan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 115:209-226.
Solounias, N., J. C. Barry, R. Bernor, E. Lindsay and M. Raza. 1995. The oldest known bovid from the Kamlial Formation of Pakistan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15:806-814.
Solounias, N., S. M. C. Moelleken and J. M. Plavcan. 1995. Predicting the diet of extinct bovids using masseteric morphology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15:795-805.
Werdelin, L. and N. Solounias. 1996. The evolutionary history of the hyaenas in Europe and Western Asia during the Miocene. 290-306 pp. In: Bernor, R. L, Fahlbusch, V. and Mittmann, H-W (Eds.). The Evolution of the Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. Columbia University Press. 487 pp.
Kappelman, J., S. Sen, M. Fortelius, A. Duncan, B. Alpagut, J. Carabauch, A. Gentry, J. P. Lunkka, F. McDowell, N. Solounias, S. Viranta and L. Werdelin. 1996. Chronology and Biostratigraphy of the Miocene Sinap Formation of Central Turkey. Pp. 78- 95. In: Bernor, R. L.., Fahlbusch, V. and Mittmann, H-W (Eds.) The Evolution of the Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. Columbia University Press. 487 pp.
Bernor, R. L., N. Solounias, C. C. Swisher III and J. A. Van Couvering. 1996. The correlation of the classical "Pikermian" mammal faunas - Maragheh, Samos and Pikermi, with the European MN unit system. Pp. 137-154. In: Bernor, R.L., Fahlbusch, V. and Mittmann, H-W (Eds.). The Evolution of the Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. Columbia University Press. 487 pp.
Cerling, T. E., J. M. Harris, S. H. Ambrose, M. G. Leakey and N. Solounias. 1997. Dietary and environmental reconstruction with stable isotope analyses of herbivore tooth enamel from the Miocene locality of Fort Ternan, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 33: 635-650.
Solounias, N. 1999. The remarkable anatomy of the giraffe's neck. Journal of Zoology. 247:257-268.
MacFadden, B. J., N. Solounias and T. E. Cerling. 1999. Ancient diets, ecology and extinction of 5 million-year-old horses from Florida. Science 283:824-827.
Solounias, N. M. Plavcan, J. Quade and L. Witmer. 1999. The Pikermian Biome and the savanna myth. Pp. 427-444. In: Evolution of the Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe. J. Agusti, P. Andrews and L. Rook (eds.). Cambridge University Press.
Witmer, L. M., S. D. Sampson and N. Solounias. 1999. Case studies in narial anatomy: The proboscis of tapirs (Tapirus terrestris): a case study in novel narial anatomy. Journal of Zoology 249:249-267. see Witmer et al. - tapir.html hypertext
Solounias, N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1999. The Miocene gazelle from Greece as a model for detecting Darwinian evolutionary change. Annales Musei Goulandris, Greece Vol. 10:291-308.
Solounias N. and S. M. C. Moelleken. 1999. Dietary determination of extinct bovids through cranial foraminal analysis, with radiographic applications. Annales Musei Goulandris, Greece Vol. 10:267-290.
Solounias, N., W. S. McGraw, L-A. C. Hayek and L. Werdelin. 2000. The paleodiet of the Giraffidae. Pp. 84-95. In: Antelopes, Deer and Relatives. E. S. Vrba and G. B. Schaller (eds.) Yale University Press.
Fortelius, M. and N. Solounias. 2000. Functional characterization of ungulate molars using the abrasion-attrition wear gradient: a new method for reconstructing paleodiets. American Museum Novitates no 3301:1-36.
Kaiser, T. M., N. Solounias, M. Fortelius, R. L. Bernor and F. Schrenk. 2000. Tooth mesowear analysis on Hippotherium primigenium from the Vallesian Dinotheriensande (Germany) - A blind test study. Carolinea 58:103-114.
Solounias, N. 2000. Giraffe. McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 2001:174-175.
Guelfugat, Mark., Nurul Nurbhai, N. Solounias. 2001. A median accessory digastric muscle: radiological and clinical correlation. Clinical Anatomy 14:42-46.
Solounias and G. M. Semprebon 2002. Advances in the reconstruction of ungulate ecomorphology and application to early fossil equids. American Museum of Natural History Novitates 3366.
Zucconi Willian, Mark Guerfugat and Nikos Solounias 2002. Approach to the educational opportunities provided by variant anatomy, illustrated by discussion of a duplicated inferior vena cava. Clinical Anatomy 15: 165-168.
Kaiser, T. and N. Solounias. 2003. Extending the tooth mesowear method to extinct and extant equids. Geodiversitas 25(2):321-345.
Kaiser, T., R. L. Bernor. R. S. Scott, J. L. Franzen and N. Solounias. 2003. New interpretations of the Systematics and Paleoecology of the Dorn-Durkheim 1 Hipparions, (Late Miocene, Turolian Age - MN 11), Rheinhessen, Germany. Senckenbergianna Lethea 83:103-133
Franz-Odendaal, T., N. Solounias. 2004. Dietary reconstruction of Sivatherium hendey (Mammalia Giraffidae, Sivatheriinae) from Langebaanweg, South Africa (early Pliocene). Geodiversitas 26(4):675-685.
Semprebon, G. M., Janis, C. M. and N. Solounias. 2004. The diets of the Dromomercidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) and their response to Miocene climatic and vegetational change. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(2): 427-444.
Semprebon, G. M., L. R. Godfrey, N. Solounias, M. R. Sutherland, W. L. Jungers. 2004. Can low-magnification stereomicroscopy reveal diet? Journal of Human Evolution. 47:115-144
Godfrey L. R., G. M. Semprebon, W. L. Jungers M. R. Sutherland, E. Simons, N. Solounias. 2004. Dental use wear in extinct lemurs: evidence of diet and niche differentiation. Journal of Human Evolution. 47:145-169.
Merceron, G., C. Blondel, M. Brunet, S. Sen, N. Solounias. L. Viriot, E. Henitz. 2004. The Late Miocene paleoenvironment of Afagnistan as inferred from the dental microwear in artiodactyls. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 207:143-163.
Solounias, N. 2004. The secrets of the Spiliani Hill. Apoplous 31-32: 285-293 (in Greek).
Solounias, N. and A. Mayor. 2004. Ancient references to the fossils from the land of Pythagoras. Earth Sciences History. 23(4): 283-296.
Mihlbachler, M. C. and N. Solounias. 2006. Coevolution of tooth crown height and diet in oreodonts (Merycoidontidae, Artiodactyla) examined with phylogenetically independent contrasts. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 13(1):11-36.
N. Solounias and Ring, U. 2007. Ancient history of the Samos fossils and the record of earthquakes. Journal of the Virtual Explorer - volume 28 paper 3.
Rivals F., Mihlbachler M. C., Solounias N. 2007. Effect of ontogenetic-age distribution in fossil samples on the interpretation of ungulate paleodiets using the mesowear method. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27: 763-767.
Rivals F., Solounias N. 2007. Differences in tooth microwear of populations of caribou (Rangifer tarandus, Ruminantia, Mammalia) and implications to ecology, migration, glaciations and dental evolution. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 14: 182-192.
Rivals F., N. Solounias and M. Mihlbachler. 2007. Evidence for geographic variation in the diets of late Pleistocene and early Holocene Bison in North America, and differences from the diets of recent Bison. Quaternary Research vol. 68:338-346.
Solounias, N. 2007. The Giraffidae Pp. 257-277. in D. R. Prothero and S. E. Foss (eds.) The Evolution of Artiodactyls. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Solounias, N. 2007. The Bovidae Pp. 278-291. in D. R. Prothero and S. E. Foss (eds.) The Evolution of Artiodactyls. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Solounias N., F. Rivals, G. M. Semprebon. 2010. Dietary interpretation and paleoecology of herbivores from Pikermi and Samos (late Miocene of Greece). Paleobiology 36(1): 113-136.
Florent Rivals, Matthew M Mihlbachler, Nikos Solounias, Dick Mol, Gina M Semprebon, John de Vos, Daniela C Kalthoff, 2010. Palaeoecology of the Mammoth Steppe fauna from the late Pleistocene of the North Sea and Alaska: separating species preferences from geographic influence in paleoecological dental wear analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 286:42-84
Harris, J., N. Solounias, and D. Geraads. 2010. African Giraffoidea Pp. 805-819. in W. J. Sanders and L. Werdelin (eds.) Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press.
Harris, J., N. Solounias, and D. Geraads. 2010. African Camelidae. Pp. 823-828. in W. J. Sanders and L. Werdelin (eds.) Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press.
Mihlbachler, M., F. Rivals, N. Solounias, G. Semprebon. 2011. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America. Science 331:1178-1181.
Marra A C, N. Solounias, G. Carone, L. Rook. 2011. Palaeogeographic significance of the giraffid remains (Mammalia, Arctiodactyla) from Cessaniti (Late Miocene, Southern Italy) L'importance paleogeographique des girafes de Cessaniti (Miocene Superieur, Italie du Sud). Geobios 44 :189-197.
Rivals, F. N. Solounias and G. B. Schaller. 2011. Diet of Mongolian gazelles and Tibetan antelopes from the steppe habitats using premaxillary shape, tooth mesowear and microwear analyses. Mammalian Biology 76:358-364.
Solounias N., G. Semprebon, M. C. Mihlbachler, and F. Rivals. (2012) Paleodietary Comparisons of Ungulates between the Late Miocene of China, and Pikermi and Samos in Greece. Neogene Terrestrial Mammalian Biostratigraphy and Chronology of Asia - Edited by Xiaoming Wang, Lawrence J. Flynn, and Mikael Fortelius. PP. 676-692. New York: Columbia University Press.
Nikos Solounias, Muhammad Tariq, Sukuan Hou, Melinda Danowitz and Mary Harrison 2014 in press. A new method of tooth mesowear and a test of it on domestic goats in The Mikael Fortelius Volume; Annales Zoologici Fennici.